Inbred Deutsch "inbred" Deutsch Übersetzung
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Is Singular 'They' a Better Choice? Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words? Build a chain of words by adding one letter at a time.
Login or Register. Save Word. Log In. Keep scrolling for more. Choose the Right Synonym for inbred Adjective innate , inborn , inbred , congenital , hereditary mean not acquired after birth.
Examples of inbred in a Sentence Adjective They have an inbred love of freedom. Recent Examples on the Web: Adjective Combined with male deaths caused by fishing activities near the shore, there might not be enough males to keep the species from becoming inbred , Schofield says.
First Known Use of inbred Adjective circa , in the meaning defined at sense 1 Noun , in the meaning defined above.
Learn More about inbred. Time Traveler for inbred The first known use of inbred was circa See more words from the same year. Dictionary Entries near inbred in-box inbreak inbreathe inbred inbreed inbreeding inbring See More Nearby Entries.
More Definitions for inbred. English Language Learners Definition of inbred. Comments on inbred What made you want to look up inbred?
Get Word of the Day daily email! Malformations or harmful traits can stay within a population due to a high homozygosity rate, and this will cause a population to become fixed for certain traits, like having too many bones in an area, like the vertebral column of wolves on Isle Royale or having cranial abnormalities, such as in Northern elephant seals, where their cranial bone length in the lower mandibular tooth row has changed.
Having a high homozygosity rate is problematic for a population because it will unmask recessive deleterious alleles generated by mutations, reduce heterozygote advantage, and it is detrimental to the survival of small, endangered animal populations.
There may also be other deleterious effects besides those caused by recessive diseases. Thus, similar immune systems may be more vulnerable to infectious diseases see Major histocompatibility complex and sexual selection.
Inbreeding history of the population should also be considered when discussing the variation in the severity of inbreeding depression between and within species.
With persistent inbreeding, there is evidence that shows that inbreeding depression becomes less severe.
This is associated with the unmasking and elimination of severely deleterious recessive alleles.
However, inbreeding depression is not a temporary phenomenon because this elimination of deleterious recessive alleles will never be complete.
Eliminating slightly deleterious mutations through inbreeding under moderate selection is not as effective.
Fixation of alleles most likely occurs through Muller's ratchet , when an asexual population's genome accumulates deleterious mutations that are irreversible.
Despite all its disadvantages, inbreeding can also have a variety of advantages, such as reducing the recombination load ,  and allowing the expression of recessive advantageous phenotypes.
It has been proposed that under circumstances when the advantages of inbreeding outweigh the disadvantages, preferential breeding within small groups could be promoted, potentially leading to speciation.
Autosomal recessive disorders occur in individuals who have two copies of an allele for a particular recessive genetic mutation.
These carriers do not display any signs of the mutation and may be unaware that they carry the mutated gene.
Since relatives share a higher proportion of their genes than do unrelated people, it is more likely that related parents will both be carriers of the same recessive allele, and therefore their children are at a higher risk of inheriting an autosomal recessive genetic disorder.
The extent to which the risk increases depends on the degree of genetic relationship between the parents; the risk is greater when the parents are close relatives and lower for relationships between more distant relatives, such as second cousins, though still greater than for the general population.
Children of parent-child or sibling-sibling unions are at an increased risk compared to cousin-cousin unions. The isolation of a small population for a period of time can lead to inbreeding within that population, resulting in increased genetic relatedness between breeding individuals.
Inbreeding depression can also occur in a large population if individuals tend to mate with their relatives, instead of mating randomly.
Many individuals in the first generation of inbreeding will never live to reproduce. Island species are often very inbred, as their isolation from the larger group on a mainland allows natural selection to work on their population.
This type of isolation may result in the formation of race or even speciation , as the inbreeding first removes many deleterious genes, and permits the expression of genes that allow a population to adapt to an ecosystem.
As the adaptation becomes more pronounced, the new species or race radiates from its entrance into the new space, or dies out if it cannot adapt and, most importantly, reproduce.
The reduced genetic diversity , for example due to a bottleneck will unavoidably increase inbreeding for the entire population. This may mean that a species may not be able to adapt to changes in environmental conditions.
Each individual will have similar immune systems, as immune systems are genetically based. When a species becomes endangered , the population may fall below a minimum whereby the forced interbreeding between the remaining animals will result in extinction.
Natural breedings include inbreeding by necessity, and most animals only migrate when necessary. In many cases, the closest available mate is a mother, sister, grandmother, father, brother, or grandfather.
In all cases, the environment presents stresses to remove from the population those individuals who cannot survive because of illness.
There was an assumption that wild populations do not inbreed; this is not what is observed in some cases in the wild.
However, in species such as horses , animals in wild or feral conditions often drive off the young of both sexes, thought to be a mechanism by which the species instinctively avoids some of the genetic consequences of inbreeding.
Although there are several examples of inbred populations of wild animals, the negative consequences of this inbreeding are poorly documented.
Historical analysis indicated that a population expansion from just two matrilineal lines was responsible for most of the individuals within the population.
Even so, the diversity within the lines allowed great variation in the gene pool that may help to protect the South American sea lion from extinction.
In lions, prides are often followed by related males in bachelor groups. When the dominant male is killed or driven off by one of these bachelors, a father may be replaced by his son.
There is no mechanism for preventing inbreeding or to ensure outcrossing. In the prides, most lionesses are related to one another.
If there is more than one dominant male, the group of alpha males are usually related. Two lines are then being "line bred". Also, in some populations, such as the Crater lions, it is known that a population bottleneck has occurred.
Researchers found far greater genetic heterozygosity than expected. However, killing another male's cubs, upon the takeover, allows the new selected gene complement of the incoming alpha male to prevail over the previous male.
There are genetic assays being scheduled for lions to determine their genetic diversity. The preliminary studies show results inconsistent with the outcrossing paradigm based on individual environments of the studied groups.
In Central California, sea otters were thought to have been driven to extinction due to over hunting, until a small colony was discovered in the Point Sur region in the s.
Population growth is limited by the fact that all Californian sea otters are descended from the isolated colony, resulting in inbreeding.
Cheetahs are another example of inbreeding. Thousands of years ago the cheetah went through a population bottleneck that reduced its population dramatically so the animals that are alive today are all related to one another.
A consequence from inbreeding for this species has been high juvenile mortality, low fecundity, and poor breeding success.
In a study on an island population of song sparrows, individuals that were inbred showed significantly lower survival rates than outbred individuals during a severe winter weather related population crash.
These studies show that inbreeding depression and ecological factors have an influence on survival. A measure of inbreeding of an individual A is the probability F A that both alleles in one locus are derived from the same allele in an ancestor.
These two identical alleles that are both derived from a common ancestor are said to be identical by descent. This probability F A is called the " coefficient of inbreeding ".
Another useful measure that describes the extent to which two individuals are related say individuals A and B is their coancestry coefficient f A,B , which gives the probability that one randomly selected allele from A and another randomly selected allele from B are identical by descent.
A particular case is the self-coancestry of individual A with itself, f A,A , which is the probability that taking one random allele from A and then, independently and with replacement, another random allele also from A, both are identical by descent.
Both the inbreeding and the coancestry coefficients can be defined for specific individuals or as average population values. They can be computed from genealogies or estimated from the population size and its breeding properties, but all methods assume no selection and are limited to neutral alleles.
There are several methods to compute this percentage. The two main ways are the path method   and the tabular method.
Breeding in domestic animals is primarily assortative breeding see selective breeding. Without the sorting of individuals by trait, a breed could not be established, nor could poor genetic material be removed.
Homozygosity is the case where similar or identical alleles combine to express a trait that is not otherwise expressed recessiveness.
Inbreeding exposes recessive alleles through increasing homozygosity. Breeders must avoid breeding from individuals that demonstrate either homozygosity or heterozygosity for disease causing alleles.
Culling is not strictly necessary if genetics are the only issue in hand. Small animals such as cats and dogs may be sterilized, but in the case of large agricultural animals, such as cattle, culling is usually the only economic option.
The issue of casual breeders who inbreed irresponsibly is discussed in the following quotation on cattle:. Intensive selection for higher yield has increased relationships among animals within breed and increased the rate of casual inbreeding.
Many of the traits that affect profitability in crosses of modern dairy breeds have not been studied in designed experiments. Indeed, all crossbreeding research involving North American breeds and strains is very dated McAllister, if it exists at all.
Linebreeding is a form of inbreeding. There is no clear distinction between the two terms, but linebreeding may encompass crosses between individuals and their descendants or two cousins.
Outcrossing is where two unrelated individuals are crossed to produce progeny. In outcrossing, unless there is verifiable genetic information, one may find that all individuals are distantly related to an ancient progenitor.
If the trait carries throughout a population, all individuals can have this trait. This is called the founder effect.
In the well established breeds, that are commonly bred, a large gene pool is present. For example, in , over 18, Persian cats were registered.
However, it is not always the case, and a form of distant linebreeding occurs. Again it is up to the assortative breeder to know what sort of traits, both positive and negative, exist within the diversity of one breeding.
This diversity of genetic expression, within even close relatives, increases the variability and diversity of viable stock.
Systematic inbreeding and maintenance of inbred strains of laboratory mice and rats is of great importance for biomedical research. The inbreeding guarantees a consistent and uniform animal model for experimental purposes and enables genetic studies in congenic and knock-out animals.
In order to achieve a mouse strain that is considered inbred, a minimum of 20 sequential generations of sibling matings must occur. With each successive generation of breeding, homozygosity in the entire genome increases, eliminating heterozygous loci.
With 20 generations of sibling matings, homozygosity is occurring at roughly The mice that are inbred typically show considerably lower survival rates.
Inbreeding increases the chances of the expression of deleterious recessive alleles by increasing homozygosity and therefore has the potential to decrease the fitness of the offspring.
With continuous inbreeding, genetic variation is lost and homozygosity is increased, enabling the expression of recessive deleterious alleles in homozygotes.
The coefficient of inbreeding , or the degree of inbreeding in an individual, is an estimate of the percent of homozygous alleles in the overall genome.
This overall homozygosity becomes an issue when there are deleterious recessive alleles in the gene pool of the family. Inbreeding is especially problematic in small populations where the genetic variation is already limited.
The fitness consequences of consanguineous mating have been studied since their scientific recognition by Charles Darwin in The general negative outlook and eschewal of inbreeding that is prevalent in the Western world today has roots from over years ago.
Specifically, written documents such as the Bible illustrate that there have been laws and social customs that have called for the abstention from inbreeding.
Along with cultural taboos, parental education and awareness of inbreeding consequences have played large roles in minimizing inbreeding frequencies in areas like Europe.
That being so, there are less urbanized and less populated regions across the world that have shown continuity in the practice of inbreeding.
The continuity of inbreeding is often either by choice or unavoidably due to the limitations of the geographical area. When by choice, the rate of consanguinity is highly dependent on religion and culture.
The same is true for some Hasidic and Haredi Jewish groups. Of the practicing regions, Middle Eastern and northern Africa territories show the greatest frequencies of consanguinity.
Among these populations with high levels of inbreeding, researchers have found several disorders prevalent among inbred offspring.
In Lebanon , Saudi Arabia , Egypt , and in Israel , the offspring of consanguineous relationships have an increased risk of congenital malformations, congenital heart defects, congenital hydrocephalus and neural tube defects.
Inter-nobility marriage was used as a method of forming political alliances among elites. These ties were often sealed only upon the birth of progeny within the arranged marriage.
Thus marriage was seen as a union of lines of nobility, not as a contract between individuals as it is seen today. Royal intermarriage was often practiced among European royal families, usually for interests of state.
Over time, due to the relatively limited number of potential consorts, the gene pool of many ruling families grew progressively smaller, until all European royalty was related.
This also resulted in many being descended from a certain person through many lines of descent, such as the numerous European royalty and nobility descended from the British Queen Victoria or King Christian IX of Denmark.
The closely related houses of Habsburg, Bourbon , Braganza and Wittelsbach also frequently engaged in first-cousin unions as well as the occasional double-cousin and uncle—niece marriages.
Examples of incestuous marriages and the impact of inbreeding on royal families include:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Redirected from Inbred. Production of offspring from the mating of individuals of a breed who are more closely related than the average members of the breed.
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